Clomid Clomiphene Expand

Clomid Clomiphene

Attawa Med Attawa Med

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Bottle of 30 tablets. 100mg of Clomiphene Citrate per capsule. Clomil is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). It increases production of gonadotropins via negative feedback inhibition in the hypothalamus, and is mainly used to treat female infertility.

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What does Clomid do?

Clomiphene citrate is an anti-estrogenic drug used in women to treat inability to ovulate. It is sometimes referred to as a nonsteroidal ovulatory stimulant. This drug interacts with estrogen receptors, often in an antagonistic manner, in various tissues including hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, endometrium , vagina, and cervix. This drug acts to oppose the negative feedback of estrogens on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, this way enhancing the release of gonadotropins (LH and FSH). This surge in gonadotropins can result in egg release (follicular rupture), ideally, leading to conception.

Clomid (clomiphene citrate) is a synthetic estrogen with both agonistic and antagonistic properties, which is very similar in its structure and action to Nolvadex. Both the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties of clomiphene citrate are thought to play a role in its ability to support female fertility.

In men, clomiphene citrate can act as a partial anti-estrogen, and can be used to counter some of the side effects of aromatization (e.g. gynecomastia, increased water retention). As an anti-estrogenic drug, clomiphene citrate may produce an increase in FSH and LH levels, which in turn, can elevate testosterone production. Clomid can also induce ovulation and reverse oligoovulation or anovulation - like in infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome; it can also be used for ovarian hyperstimulation or as a part of an in vitro fertilization procedure. Off-label use includes treatment of hypogonadism in men.

 

How does Clomid work?

Clomiphene citrate is classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator, with both agonistic and antagonistic properties. It has the chemical designation 2-[4-(2-chloro-1,2-diphenylvinyl)phenoxyltriethylaminedihydrogen citrate. Clomid blocks estrogen receptors in hypothalamus and inhibits negative feedback of estrogen on gonadotropin production. It can also directly stimulate the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis.

General information

In healthy females reproduction is regulated by HPG axis that controls ovarian and uterine cycles through the production of hormones. If this hormonal balance is disturbed, ovulation is disrupted which can lead to infertility. Clomiphene is prescribed either, as a monotherapy, or in a combination with other drugs to treat infertility. It is produced in a form of tablets for oral consumption containing active ingredient Clomiphene citrate; it also contains inactive components: micro cellulose, silicon dioxide, lactose, and magnesium stearate.

Clomid belongs to the group of non-steroid anti-estrogens that are known as ‘ovulation stimulants’, i.e. they trigger hormones which promote development and release of an egg during ovarian cycle.

Its mode of action involves selective modulation of estrogen receptors in ovaries and pituitary; it stimulates an increase in levels of gonadotropins through negative feedback inhibition on the hypothalamus.

 

Clomid safety information:

Common side effects include:

  • hot flashes
  • abdominal discomfort
  • visual blurring
  • ovarian enlargement

Rare:

  • abnormal uterine bleeding
  • nausea
  • vomiting

Extremely rare:

  • reversible alopecia
  • ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

 

 

Side effects

The risk of any side effects depends on the dose patient is taking: the higher the dose, the more likely is the occurrence of the side effects. Nevertheless, in most cases these are mild and reversible. After a short term treatment, the side effects disappear completely.

Patient should seek physician’s advice if any of the following mild side effects continue for prolonged periods of time, or become more severe:

  • Itching, skin rash
  • Insomnia
  • Mood swings, tiredness
  • Depression
  • Nausea, dizziness, headaches
  • Fits
  • Feeling unusually tense, faint or disoriented
  • Vertigo, flushing
  • Facial swelling
  • Hair thinning/loss
  • Blurred vision, cataracts (cloudiness of the lens)
  • Speech problems
  • Increased menstrual flow, abnormal bleeding between periods
  • Painful breasts
  • Painful lower part of the stomach – could indicate enlargement of the ovaries, endometriosis or cancer – medical assistance highly recommended

Treatment should be stopped, and one should seek medical assistance upon the presentation of any of the following:

  • Jaundice – yellowing of the skin or eyes; is an indication for liver dysfunction;
  • Severe headaches
  • Blurriness, spotting or flashing in the eyes;
  • Overstimulation of the ovaries. This can lead to pelvic pain, stomach or calf pain, bloating, sensation of swelling, weight gain, breathing difficulties or passing less urine thus in some cases dose may be lowered
  • ‘psychosis’ or any mental illnesses

Upon the presentation of any of the following severe side effects, treatment must be terminated and patient must seek medical assistance immediately:

  • Allergic reaction – rash, facial swelling especially of the lips, throat or tongue; difficulty swallowing or even breathing
  • Any signs of a stroke; including unsteadiness, confusion, sudden vision problems (blurriness), slurred speech, numbness, weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.

Clomid may also lead to multiple ovulation resulting in multiple births.

It has not been found to increase risks for ovarian cancer.

 

Missed dose

If a dose is missed, physician’s advice is recommended since the treatment cycle may need to be changed. Double doses must NEVER be taken

 

Overdose

If more is taken than the dose recommended, one should seek medical assistance immediately.  The most likely result is an over-stimulation of the ovaries.

 

Storage

Clomid should be stored in the original container, below 25°C, away from the direct sunlight out of children’s reach.

NEVER use after the expiry date, dispose as indicated on the packaging.

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